Thyroid

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  • The thyroid is really a little gland that lies in the neck concerning the amount of the Adam's apple and weighs around 1 ounce. It produces thyroid hormone and calcitonin. The parathyroid glands are very little and lie on the outdoors portion of the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone. We will be focusing on thyroid hormone.
  • The thyroid gland is stimulated to produce thyroid hormone by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is created within the pituitary gland situated in the brain. The pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus within the brain which monitors the quantity of circulating thyroid hormone. Iodine need to enter the thyroid gland via a transport method that is repaired using the intake of vitamin C. There is generally about 20-30 mg of iodine within the physique and 75 % of it's stored within the thyroid. In addition to iodine, magnesium, zinc, copper, and vitamins B2, B3, and B6 are needed for thyroid hormone production.
  • The thyroid gland produces two thyroid hormones T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine). Ninety-five % of thyroid hormone made is T4 and five percent is T3. T3 will be the active type of thyroid hormone which is produced because of one iodine becoming cleaved from T4. T4 is inactive so the majority of thyroid hormone created is really inactive. The numbers "3" and "4" indicate the amount of iodines. This is key in understanding optimal thyroid function. Both T4 and T3 are bound to proteins within the blood till they reach your cells and become unbound to function their magic on metabolism.
  • The majority of the T4 is converted into T3 within the liver. Around sixty % in the T4 is converted into T3, twenty % is converted into an inactive form of thyroid hormone known as reverse T3 (irreversible), and also the remaining twenty percent is converted into T3S (T3 sulfate) and T3AC (triiodothyroacetic acid).
  • Reverse T3 may be problematic; although it is inactive, it'll nevertheless bind to T3 receptors and block T3 from binding and operating its magic on metabolism. Also much or too little cortisol which is produced by the adrenal glands will increase circulating levels of reverse T3. This mechanism is due to suppressed liver detoxification and clearance of reverse T3 from excess cortisol production. Stress can not merely cause indicators of hypothyroidism however it will also impair the liver's ability to detoxify. Cortisol will also suppress TSH production resulting in low thyroid function. Immune program activation, high adrenaline, excess free of charge radicals, aging, fasting, stress, prolonged illness, and diabetes will also drive the inactivation of T3 to reverse T3.
  • T3 and reverse T3 can also be inactivated by conversion into a hormone known as T2. Elevated insulin levels due to a diet high in refined carbohydrates may also increase reverse T3 levels. Toxic metals including mercury, cadmium and lead may also boost reverse T3 production. T3S and T3AC are inactive until they are catalyzed by an enzyme in the GI tract recognized as sulfatase. This enzyme is dependent on wholesome gut bacteria. We'll go over within a later chapter the value of a wholesome digestive tract because it relates to twenty percent of active thyroid hormone.
  • Thyroid hormone's main function would be to manage metabolism (power production) inside the cell. Our cells contain tiny factories called mitochondria that generate energy from fat, sugar and protein. Thyroid hormone controls the function in the mitochondria which determines just how much power is created. Symptoms of low thyroid function are associated to a decrease in energy production including
  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain/inability to lose weight
  • Constipation
  • Dry/itchy skin
  • Dry brittle hair and nails
  • Depression
  • Headaches
  • Overly sensitive to cold
  • Cold/numb hands and feet
  • Muscle cramps
  • Depressed immune system-can't recover from infections
  • Slow wound healing
  • Unrefreshing sleep
  • Digestive problems as a result of low stomach acid
  • Hair falls out
  • Water retention
  • Lateral third of eyebrow thinning
  • TSH
  • Traditional medicine relies mostly around the TSH or thyroid-stimulating hormone blood test to measure thyroid function. TSH just isn't a thyroid hormone. TSH is produced by the pituitary based on how much thyroid hormone is circulating in the bloodstream. As thyroid hormone levels drop, TSH production will boost to stimulate the thyroid to produce more hormone. If thyroid hormone increases, then TSH production will lower since the thyroid is creating plenty of hormone. The TSH alone just isn't adequate to assess thyroid function since it doesn't take into consideration the conversion of thyroid hormone into its active type which happens in the liver, kidneys and lungs. The TSH test also doesn't take into account thyroid hormone receptor resistance. Thyroid hormone receptors can turn out to be resistant to thyroid hormone because of thyroid-disrupting chemical exposure leading to normal blood tests but development of low thyroid symptoms. Cortisol created throughout tension by the adrenal gland may also inhibit TSH production additional throwing off the accuracy in the test. In the event the TSH is elevated, the standard physician will prescribe synthetic T4 and this can generally reduce TSH in to the "normal" variety. This approach will not take into account peripheral thyroid hormone conversion or receptor binding. When the body is compromised in its capability to activate thyroid hormone into T3, then taking T4 will result inside a failure of remedy. When the adrenal glands are out of balance, then probably thyroid hormone function will also be out of balance. Furthermore, if thyroid hormone receptors are desensitized, this strategy will fail also.
  • You'll find that most medical physicians don't devote a lot time reading the peer-reviewed medical literature which provides us with useful data on TSH levels. A superb study was published by Obal and Krueger (2001)on sleep deprivation and thyroid hormone production. The researchers concluded "When sleep deprivation is maintained for weeks, the plasma concentrations of T4 and especially T3 decline but TSH remains typical."6 Do physicians ask you about your sleep patterns? Maybe this could be the cause for the abnormal TSH. I've noticed several individuals who also endure from insomnia and sleep issues and present with low thyroid symptoms and abnormal TSH levels. Does this imply they should have thyroid hormone dumped into their bodies? Regrettably, this happens to lots of people. I often take into account every patient's sleep pattern and appropriate it as a part of our treatment plan. Numerous occasions, sleep patterns are abnormal due to blood sugar and adrenal gland imbalances. Keep in mind, you are not a lab test but a stunning, complicated being where every little thing is connected as one.
  • Testing & Diagnosis
  • Blood tests alone cannot usually adequately diagnose thyroid hormone imbalance. It's estimated that about forty % in the U.S. population suffers from some kind of thyroid imbalance as opposed to the current standard figure of ten %. This is because of the inadequacies in the TSH test. In addition to blood testing, I review a thorough case history and a variety of detailed health questionnaires and also perform a comprehensive physical examination for clues to //www.savethestudent.org/?s=thyroid%20hormone">thyroid hormone imbalance. Basal physique temperature testing is used by numerous practitioners to evaluate thyroid function but this will not solely indicate a thyroid imbalance. There are several other factors that can cause a low basal body temperature such as adrenal fatigue, leaky gut, impaired liver detoxification and malnutrition. I use the basal body temperature simply as 1 much more diagnostic tool to evaluate the overall picture of a patient. Another sign that may indicate low thyroid function is thinning from the lateral one-third of the eyebrow.
  • The following thyroid tests can provide a lot more information about your thyroid. Use this as a guide when you get the results of your blood tests
  • TSH (Thyrotropin) – Thyroid-stimulating hormone is created by the pituitary to stimulate the thyroid to create hormone. The ideal range is 1.8-3.0. Conventional medicine uses a much broader variety of 0.5-5.5. This range misses numerous hypothyroid patients such as those with a TSH between three.0-5.5.
  • Total Thyroxine (T4) – This test measures the amount of T4 (thyroxine) that's both bound to protein and unbound.
  • Free Thyroxine Index – This really is calculated by multiplying the TT4 by the T3 uptake. The result gives you the quantity of unbound T4 or Totally free T4.
  • Totally free Thyroxine (Free of charge T4) – This measures the amount of unbound or free T4 which can be the most active form. Totally free T4 just isn't affected by medications or other factors that affect protein bound thyroxine (TT4).
  • T3 Uptake – A measurement in the level of available binding sites for free of charge T3 on thyroxine-binding proteins. Elevated testosterone will minimize the amount of binding sites and result in a low T4 and high T3 uptake. Excess estrogen from hormone replacement or birth handle pills will boost binding sites and can trigger high T4 and low T3 uptake.
  • Free Triiodothyronine (Totally free T3) – This can be a measure of free T3 levels or unbound T3. This can be the best test if your natural physician wants to see the level of available active thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
  • Reverse T3 (rT3) – This is a measurement from the level of T3 that has been inactivated.
  • Thyroid Antibodies – Thyroid peroxidase, thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin and antithyroglobulin elevations indicate autoimmune thyroid disease such as //www.triundhill.com/hypothyroidism">Hashimoto sintomi's or Graves' disease. Thyroglobulin and calcitonin are mainly used in the diagnosis of much more serious thyroid diseases such as cancer.
  • Prescription Medications
  • Prescription medications do not take into account underlying physiological imbalances and may lead to dependence on the medication. The following drugs are prescribed by physicians to treat the thyroid
  • Synthroid – Synthetic thyroxine (T4). Synthroid may be the most popular prescription drug for hypothyroidism. Synthroid is inside the top five most commonly prescribed drugs within the US. Synthroid may be converted incorrectly into inactive reverse T3 resulting in no symptom improvement. Synthroid depletes calcium for bones and may not provide improvement for sufferers who have compromised conversion pathways of T4 into T3 or any in the other imbalances described in this book.
  • Levoxyl – Synthetic thyroxine (T4).
  • Levothroid – Synthetic thyroxine (T4).
  • Levothyroxine – Synthetic thyroxine (T4).
  • Thyrolar – Synthetic T4 and T3.
  • Cytomel – Synthetic T3. Numerous side effects including hyperthyroid symptoms.
  • Armour Thyroid, Nature Thyroid, Westhroid – Natural thyroid hormone from desiccated pig thyroid tissue. Contains roughly 38 micrograms/grain of T4 and 9 micrograms of T3/grain as well as other cofactors for thyroid hormone production. Nature Thyroid is a better choice than Armour because it will not contain corn and other binders.
  • Many alternative-minded medical doctors prescribe Armour and other natural desiccated pig thyroid tissue. This is a better option in some cases than merely prescribing synthetic T4 (Synthroid) simply because these natural agents also contain T3. The problem with Armour is that it contains corn and other fillers which may be a problem for those with specific sensitivities. Nature Thyroid will be the best choice simply because it does not contain corn or fillers. But the author does not agree with this treatment method simply because although it's a better option, it nonetheless will not take into account the underlying causes of why the thyroid is out of balance inside the first place. These natural prescriptions nevertheless only replace thyroid hormone and require dependence around the doctor for continued prescriptions and office visits. I have noticed many, many individuals who are on such natural prescriptions who still have numerous symptoms and have been taking the prescription for a long period of time. Even if someone responds to a prescription such as Armour thyroid, she must be rigorously evaluated for underlying physiological imbalances.
  • Another issue with such therapy methods is suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanisms. Whenever you take a hormone which is produced within the physique, this tells the brain that it no longer needs to stimulate hormone production simply because it is constantly becoming ingested. When male bodybuilders take testosterone, their testicles shrink because there is no longer a need for them to create testosterone. Taking thyroid hormone for long periods of time will suppress natural production which may or may not return after discontinuing the medication. It really is strongly encouraged that you do every thing possible to normalize thyroid function before going on medication of any kind. Americans typically want a quick fix, a magic pill that will instantly give relief. Many people get this instant relief from medication but the long-term effects of dependency and suppression of natural hormone production may not be worth it. Patients who have had their thyroid removed or partially removed may require prescription thyroid hormone. If the gland just isn't present then thyroid hormone need to be replaced. In this case, prescriptions such as Armour and Nature Thyroid are the better choice.
  • Conversion of T4 into T3
  • T3 is significantly much more active than T4 and is responsible for most of the actions of thyroid hormone around the cell. Some individuals cannot convert T4 into T3 as efficiently as others. Additionally, there are numerous factors that might be inhibiting this process.
  • Selenium, antioxidants, iron, magnesium, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B6 and B12 deficiencies can lead to poor conversion. The medications listed above affect thyroid hormone conversion also as production and receptor binding. As people get older, they drop their capability to convert thyroid hormone which may be as a result of decreased vitamin and mineral absorption. This can be due to a loss of intestinal barrier function exactly where all of your nutrition is absorbed. This barrier loses its function as we age so supplementation is absolutely necessary. Excess estrogen from xenoestrogens in the environment, birth control pills and hormone replacement can lead to low thyroid symptoms. Estrogen increases the protein that binds to thyroid hormone leaving excess thyroid hormone bound to protein that is inactive till it becomes unbound. Cortisol made by the adrenal gland is actually a major factor in converting thyroid hormone. Also significantly cortisol can inhibit the activation of thyroid hormone and as well little cortisol yields the same outcome. Exhausted adrenals will trigger low thyroid symptoms as a result of the lack of cortisol production. Insulin is actually a hormone released by the pancreas to handle blood sugar elevations after consumption of carbohydrates and can inhibit hormone conversion too. Soy products have been shown to inhibit the conversion of thyroid hormone. This only goes for soy products that are non-fermented. Fermented soy products such as miso and tempeh are okay.
  • Vitamin C has been shown to enhance the conversion of thyroid hormone. Radiation, chemotherapy, growth hormone deficiency, and cigarette smoke have also been shown to reduce thyroid hormone conversion.
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